Basal application
Basal application
(BBCH 00)
(BBCH 00)
(BBCH 23-28)
(BBCH 23-28)
(BBCH 30-31)
(BBCH 30-31)
(BBCH 37-39)
(BBCH 37-39)
(BBCH 49-59)
(BBCH 49-59)
(BBCH 83-85)
(BBCH 83-85)
Додати матеріал
Додати матеріал
Fertilizers are indicated by color:
nitrogen phosphoric potash complex specialties
Spring cereals

Principles of application

The group of spring cereals includes a few important crops: spring wheat, spring barley, oats, millet. These crops are different in their biological features, growing and fertilization conditions. The less demanding crop is oats. The main feature of spring barley and wheat is their usage that heavily depends on protein content in the grain, which is regulated by nitrogen supply ratio. To get 1 t of grain with the corresponding amount of byproduct, the crop consumes around 22-27 kg of N, 10-12 kg of phosphorous, 19-24 kg of potassium and 3-4 kg of Sulphur. In the first 30 days of vegetation, spring cereals consume up to 45% of N, 65% of phosphorous and 70% of potassium.

Phosphorous-potassium fertilizers are the most suitable for basal application. At sowing application with phosphorous and nitrogen is also possible. The dose of phosphorous should not exceed 10-15 kg/ha of P2O5  and 20 kg/hа of N. Feeding with phosphorous-potassium fertilizers is non-effective.

Nitrogen fertilizers can be used for fertilization program of spring cereals during basal, at sowing application and feeding . All forms of nitrogen fertilizers are suitable for basal application. During at sowing application nitrate form of nitrogen at higher doses has toxic effect on root system. At the recommended doses ammonia and amid forms of nitrogen do not  have toxic effect on root system. Feeding is applied 1-3 times depending on crop nitrogen demand. Feeding is the most efficient in the initial phases of development before intensive stem growth.  The maximum nitrogen consumption by spring crops is recorded in the tillering and stem elongation stages and that is about  40% of crop nitrogen demand. Feeding in the later stages of growth does not compensate nitrogen deficiencies was observed during initial stages and so that does not improve yield.

To get spring wheat and barley yield of about 7-8 tons it is recommended to apply 150 kg/ha of N, 50-80 kg/ha of  P2O5 and 60-100 kg/ha of K2O. Nitrogen rate is to be reduced to 30-50 % when it is applied under malted barley.

At the beginning of vegetation, phosphorous supply can be critical for millet, that is why phosphorous fertilizers application addresses adverse impact of its deficiency before or during sowing. At the beginning of booting stage intensity of all nutrients uptake significantly increases. Oats uniformly absorbs nutrients throughout vegetation, but the crop is particularly sensitive to nitrogen shortage at tillering and at the beginning of booting stage. While sowing spring cereals after tilling between row, fertilizers rates can be reduced to 25-30%.

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